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Geomorphological evolution and sediment transfer in the Piave River system (northeastern Italy) since the Last Glacial Maximum

Evolution géomorphologique et transfert sédimentaire dans le bassin du Piave (Italie nord-orientale) depuis le Dernier Maximum Glaciaire
Alberto Carton, Aldino Bondesan, Alessandro Fontana, Mirco Meneghel, Antonella Miola, Paolo Mozzi, Sandra Primon et Nicola Surian
p. 155-174

Résumés

Cette étude traite de la production, du transfert et des dépôts de sédiments dans le bassin du fleuve Piave depuis le Dernier Maximum Glaciaire (DMG). Le système sédimentaire est étudié de la haute montagne aux méga-cônes de piedmont et aux deltas. Cette synthèse vise à définir la relation temporelle entre les phases glaciaires du Pléistocène final/Holocène et les phases sédimentaires et à analyser la dynamique et les temps de transfert sédimentaires. La production en sédiments a été maximale durant le DMG. Immédiatement après la déglaciation, jusqu’à environ 8 ka 14C BP, la sédimentation a été confinée dans les tronçons terminaux des vallées alpines et dans le Vallone Bellunese. Les plaines alluviales ont été sujettes à une importante phase érosive/sans sédimentation entre le Tardiglaciaire et l’Holocène ancien. L’érosion au sein du Vallone Bellunese, à partir de 8 ka 14C BP, a re-mobilisé les sédiments et a contribué à la formation de la plaine deltaïque depuis 6 ka 14C BP. Dans le secteur distal du méga-cône de Nervesa, la sédimentation post-glaciaire a débuté il y a environ 4-3 ka 14C BP. Après une phase de stabilité durant la période romaine (entre le Ve et le Xe siècle), de grandes défluviations se sont produites dans la partie distale du méga-cône de Nervesa. Au cours du dernier siècle, les interventions humaines ont provoqué une nette diminution du transport solide. La transition entre les périodes glaciaire et post-glaciaire a contrôlé la production sédimentaire dans le bassin ainsi que le niveau marin, mais des facteurs locaux ont eu des effets remarquables, comme le déclenchement de grands glissements de terrain, parallèlement à la progressive augmentation des activités humaines dans le système fluvial.

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Notes de la rédaction

Article soumis le 9 avril 2009, accepté le 23 juin 2009

Texte intégral

This research is part of the project “Sediment production, transfer and deposition in the Piave River basin in relation with climate changes and human impact from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Present” (responsible A. Carton) funded by the University of Padua CPDA077247. The authors thank F. Toffoletto (Regione del Veneto-Direzione Geologia e Attività Estrattive) for providing core data and P. Turpaud for the French translation. Finally, we wish to thank A. Harvey, K. Cohen and an anonymous reviewer for the valuable comments and suggestions which improved the manuscript. We are also in debt with G. Arnaud-Fassetta for his critical and constructive observations. All the authors contributed equally to the paper.

Introduction

1Production, transfer and deposition of sediments in a fluvial system are influenced by different factors, such as proximal (e.g. climate/glaciation, landcover, relief), distal (base level) and local controls (e.g. human activity; Bull, 1979; Richards, 2002; Weissmann et al., 2005; Hoffmann et al., 2007). The possibility of detecting the different factors and distinguishing their importance through the analyses of landforms and sedimentary record is mainly related to their magnitude and time of activity, basin dimension, and, also to the spatial and temporal scales under investigation (Slaymaker, 2006). A fluvial system can react to external forcing with complex response and even heavy rainfall affecting the mountain catchment could be buffered by the system or delayed in their downstream propagation (Richards, 2002; Lang et al., 2003). Sedimentary budget researches are generally applied in limited areas for engineering and management purposes, but they are currently applied also in a global perspective (Syvitski et al., 2005). Most of the studies concern small catchments where detailed measurements are feasible (e.g. Campbell and Church, 2003; Schrott et al., 2003; Houben, 2003), while a limited number of investigations consider very large drainage basins (e.g. Hinderer, 2001; Goodbred, 2003; Hoffmann et al. 2007; Hoffmann et al. 2009). As concerns the Southern Alps, a recent study analyzed the sedimentary flux of the Po River since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 24-15 ka 14C BP; Lambeck et al., 2002; Shackleton et al., 2004), using a quantitative model which highlights relationships with some climatic periods and modern and present human impact (Kettner and Syvitski, 2008). As testified by this and other recent studies (e.g. Syvitski et al., 2005; Brown et al., 2009; Houben et al., 2009), the role of human activity in sedimentary flux had a paramount importance during the last millennia. As for long-term sediment budget analysis in large fluvial systems, a reconstruction approach rather than a measurement approach is generally used (Brown et al., 2009). In a large basin characterized by different environments, geomorphological investigations, coupled with the analyses of stratigraphic sequences, can allow identification of key factors constraining the sedimentary budget and of the main evolutionary phases of the system.

2In the eastern sector of the Alps, a large number of studies has been carried out only for the Piave River system. This has allowed reconstruction of geomorphological evolution and sediment transfer at basin scale since the LGM. The Piave system is one of the main fluvial systems in the Southern Alps and is characterized by marked morpho-climatic diversity, grading from mountainous glacial to lowland coastal environments. The mountain watershed was extensively glaciated during the LGM. Documentation of the chronostratigraphy of the Upper Pleistocene-Holocene depositional sequences in the Piave valley and in its megafan has been greatly enriched over the last 10-15 years. Modes and times of glacier retreat, landslide occurrence in response to deglaciation, and terrace formation were investigated in the mountain area (e.g. Pellegrini and Surian, 1996; Surian, 1996; Pellegrini et al., 2005; Soldati et al., 2004; Pellegrini et al., 2006a). The evolution of the alluvial plain has been defined thanks to extensive geomorphological mapping and the acquisition of stratigraphic (hand-augerings and mechanical cores), chronological (radiocarbon datings) and paleoenvironmental (pollen analyses) data (e.g. Bondesan and Meneghel, 2004; Mozzi, 2005; Miola et al., 2006; Fontana et al., 2008; Bondesan et al., 2008; Bondesan et al., in press). Moreover, several studies have analyzed the river channel dynamics over the last 100-200 years (e.g. Surian, 1999; Surian et al., 2009). Besides climate changes and natural processes, human activity should be taken into account when dealing with geomorphic evolution. There is evidence for human presence in the Piave basin since the Late Pleistocene (Broglio et al., 1992; Avigliano et al., 2000), but the effects of human activity on geomorphic processes are likely to have been significant only since the Neolithic period (Furlanetto, 2000; Pessina and Tiné, 2008). Since the 15th century AD, the basin has experienced the strong influence of the Republic of Venice, which conditioned both the mountain and the coastal sectors (e.g. forest and fluvial management, land reclamation). The human impact on the modern river system (last 50-60 years) further includes dam construction and in-channel mining.

3This paper focuses on sediment production, transfer and deposition in the Piave River system from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Present. The review incorporates work from a large number of studies, aiming at a synthesis at drainage basin scale, one that it is commonly lacking in studies dealing with smaller spatial and temporal scales. Results from publications that are not easily accessible and some unpublished data were included to allow for exhaustive reach-by-reach review, and to expose the contents to an international audience.

General Setting

4The Piave River flows from North to South in the eastern sector of the Italian Alps (fig. 1). The length of the river is 220 km and the extent of its catchment is 3899 km2. The fluvial system can be divided in an upper mountainous portion (from the source of the river to the village of Nervesa della Battaglia) and a lower part where the river flows in the alluvial plain. The highest elevation in the catchment is Mount Marmolada, 3343 m a.s.l. Down to Longarone, the upper reach of the river exhibits a steep, narrow channel (channel slope up to 8.8%). Between Longarone and Ponte di Piave the river is characterized by a wide channel (channel width up to 1 km in some reaches) made up of gravels and cobbles and with a braided or wandering morphology. Over this reach (115 km in length) the median size of bed material is more commonly in the range between 17 and 47 mm and is characterized by a relatively low overall rate of fining (Surian, 2002). From Ponte di Piave to the mouth the river has a sinuous, single-thread morphology (except where it is artificially straightened) and carries finer sediments (sand and silt). The hydrographic network is strongly asymmetric: 75% of the drainage basin is to the West of the main river, and includes all the main tributaries. The largest tributaries are the Cordevole Torrent (24% of the whole Piave catchment) and the Boite Torrent (11%). Average precipitation is 1350 mm/a; the runoff coefficient is 0.63 and the mean discharge at the mouth is 60 m3/s. Nowadays, flows are strongly regulated for irrigation and power production. In the catchment there are 11 reservoirs which in total store 142.3 106 m3. Some natural lakes store an additional 6 million m3. The present sediment production in the river basin has been estimated at 180-200 m3 km-2 a-1 (Surian et al., 2009), according to the filling of lakes and reservoirs.

5The main portion of the mountain basin is in the Dolomites, where a Permian to Cretaceous complex sequence of sedimentary rocks, with interbedded volcanic rocks, outcrops in a distinctive landscape. The metamorphic rocks of the basement outcrop in small areas where the overlying sedimentary rocks have been strongly uplifted and eroded (e.g. the area around Agordo). The Prealps are made of Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks, mainly limestones, sandstones and pelitic rocks. In the following sections of the paper we will refer to the mountain basin, which extends down to Nervesa, and to the alluvial plain (or Nervesa megafan; fig. 1). The mountain basin is described referring to sectors which behave quite differently in terms of sediment production, transfer and deposition. These sectors are: the upper basin, which corresponds to the Alpine area; the Vallone Bellunese, a wide longitudinal valley that separates the Alps from the Prealps; the Quero Canyon, a transverse valley crossing the Prealps; the Quartier del Piave, an intermontane basin bordered by the Montello Hill to the south (fig. 1). As no important tributaries join the Piave system in the alluvial plain, in the post-LGM the solid and water discharge of the river has been fed almost exclusively by the Alpine catchment. Due to this setting, only the ancient human presence in the mountain area could have directly affected the sedimentary flux along the river.

Fig. 1 – Simplified map of the Piave River basin.
Fig. 1 – Carte simplifiée du bassin du Piave.

Fig. 1 – Simplified map of the Piave River basin.Fig. 1 – Carte simplifiée du bassin du Piave.

1: Piave River; 2: fluvial terrace; 3: Upper limit of spring belt; 4: Piave River watershed; 5: Floodplain of groundwater-fed rivers; 6: Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) end-moraines systems; 7: Site cited in the text; 8: Site with radiocarbon dating. A: Brenta River system; B: Montebelluna megafan; C: Nervesa megafan; D: Cervada-Meschio fan; E: Cellina River fan; F: Tagliamento River megafan; G: Meduna River fan; H: Corno River fan. Sites cited in the text: 1: Sedico; 2: Modolo; 3: Valpiana; 4: Fadalto; 5: Marziai; 6: Cesa; 7: Ponte nelle Alpi; 8: La Venegia; 9: Belluno; 10: Chiesurazza; 11: Col Palù; 12: Lentiai; 13: Lipoi; 14: Cellarda; 15: Fornaci di Revine; 16: Palughetto; 17: Ca’ Tron; 18: Palazzetto; 19: Torre di Fine; 20: Cortellazzo; 21: Cavallino.

1 : Fleuve Piave ; 2 : Terrasse fluviale ; 3 : Limite supérieure de la zone de résurgence ; 4 : Bassin-versant du Piave ; 5 : Plaine alluviale des fleuves alimentés par des résurgences ; 6 : Moraines frontales du Dernier Maximum Glaciaire (DMG) ; 7 : Localités citées dans le texte ; 8 : Localisation des datations radiocarbone. A : Système fluvial du Brenta ; B : Méga-cône de Montebelluna ; C : Méga-cône de Nervesa ; D : Cône de Cervada-Meschio ; E : Cône du Cellina ; F : Cône du Tagliamento ; G : Cône du Meduna ; H : Cône du Corno. Localités citées dans le texte : 1 : Sedico ; 2 : Modolo ; 3 : Valpiana ; 4 : Fadalto ; 5 : Marziai ; 6 : Cesa ; 7 : Ponte nelle Alpi ; 8 : La Venegia ; 9 : Belluno ; 10 : Chiesurazza ; 11 : Col Palù ; 12 : Lentiai ; 13 : Lipoi ; 14 : Cellarda ; 15 : Fornaci di Revine ; 16 : Palughetto ; 17 : Ca’ Tron ; 18 : Palazzetto ; 19 : Torre di Fine ; 20 : Cortellazzo ; 21 : Cavallino.

Geochronological Data

6The data set of radiocarbon datings is a selected list of more than 100 samples, published and unpublished, mainly collected during geological and geomorphological surveys (tab. 1). Radiocarbon datings are expressed both in 14C uncalibrated years BP (Before Present) and calibrated calendar years by use of Calib 5.10 software (Stuiver and Reimer, 1993; Stuiver et al., 2005). The data have been calibrated considering 2 sigma value and have been processed with the curve intcal04.14c up to 22 000 years 14C BP. Mostly peat, woods and organic sediments were sampled and radiocarbon dated by either conventional or AMS methods. They have been collected to assess the age of large landslides, to time the activation and deactivation of intermontane lakes and river channels, and to date onset and termination of alluvial phases and coastal advance or retreat. Upstream of the Vallone Bellunese 14C datings are scarce and they are mainly concentrated in the Cortina d’Ampezzo valley, where several landslides have been dated (Pasuto et al., 1997; Soldati et al., 2004); the information related to these datings is not reported in table 1. In table 1 each sample is followed by a brief comment on the geomorphological/stratigraphic significance, referring to the specific literature, when available, for details. In the alluvial plain paleochannel infillings are very common features. Sediments were very often collected from top and bottom levels in order to establish activation/deactivation times; further, there are many peat levels corresponding to extensive bogs present during LGM on the distal plain: they are particularly significant as environmental and geochronological markers, also related to overlying and underlying channel bodies. Tree trunks in growing position give a precise age of the deposits, while other transported woods give information on flood events. In the lower Alpine basin the dated samples allow us to set times of filling (also by landslides) and downcutting of fluvial terraces, while on the coastal plain, both peat formed along the interdune depressions and shells help in reconstructing the coastal evolution of the system.

Tab. 1 – Most representative radiocarbon datings for the geomorphological evolution of Piave River system.
Tab. 1 – Sélection des datations radiocarbone les plus représentatives de l’évolution géomorphologique du système hydrologique du Piave.

Tab. 1 – Most representative radiocarbon datings for the geomorphological evolution of Piave River system. Tab. 1 – Sélection des datations radiocarbone les plus représentatives de l’évolution géomorphologique du système hydrologique du Piave.

References cited in the table: a: Pellegrini, 2000; b: Pellegrini et al., 2005; c: Pellegrini and Zambrano, 1979; d: Vescovi et al., 2007; e: Casadoro et al., 1976; f: Bondesan and Meneghel, 2004; g: Bondesan et al., 2002; h: Ghedini et al., 2002; i: Bondesan et al., in press; l: Mozzi, 1995; m: Bondesan et al., 2008; n: Miola et al., 2006; o: Canali et al., 2007; p: Fontes and Bortolami, 1973.
Références citées dans le tableau : a : Pellegrini, 2000 ; b : Pellegrini et al., 2005 ; c : Pellegrini et Zambrano, 1979 ; d : Vescovi et al., 2007 ; e : Casadoro et al., 1976 ; f : Bondesan et Meneghel, 2004 ; g : Bondesan et al., 2002 ; h : Ghedini et al., 2002 ; i : Bondesan et al., in press ; l : Mozzi, 1995 ; m : Bondesan et al., 2008 ; n : Miola et al., 2006 ; o : Canali et al., 2007 ; p : Fontes et Bortolami, 1973.

Geomorphological evolution and sedimentary phases over the last 20 ka

Upper drainage basin, Vallone Bellunese, Quero Canyon and Quartier del Piave

7During the LGM, the upper basin of the Piave (upstream of the village of Longarone) had widespread glacial coverage. Only the highest mountains emerged as nunataks from a network of ice streams, and widespread ice fields in the inner part of the Alps, with transfluences between the basins of the Piave, Adige and Tagliamento rivers, leaving a clear morphology. However, glacial sediments showing the level of the ice during deglaciation are very scarce in the whole territory: they have been eroded or covered by more recent sediments. A reconstruction of the extent of ice at the LGM is represented in a thematic map by B. Castiglioni (1940), and in the map of Italy at the LGM by Vai and Cantelli (2004). The onset of the LGM in the upper Piave basin has not yet been described in detail. Some significant landforms, referred to Lateglacial stadials, are present in the upper valleys of the main mountain groups. These are sectors of moraines composed of well-settled glacial debris covered by fairly well developed brown soils. Their distribution is well represented in the map by G.B. Castiglioni (1967). More evident and well-preserved moraines are related to the LIA, present at the heads of the highest valleys. They do not show soil formation and are partially eroded by creeks, gravitative processes and frequent debris flows. Some of these processes have been induced by melting of their ice-cores. The sediments produced by the reworking of these deposits are rarely transported outside the high valleys, and only a small part reaches the main river. Glacial and fluvial sediments of the high valleys are reported in geological and geomorphological maps of sectors of the Piave catchment. An evaluation of their volume is however impossible to date, because of the lack of specific investigations like detailed field surveys, studies of stratigraphic sections and widespread geochronological data.

8During the LGM the Vallone Bellunese hosted a valley glacier about 800 m thick (Pellegrini et al., 2005). Modes and times of deglaciation in the Vallone Bellunese were defined by Pellegrini et al. (2005). The retreat of the Piave glacier occurred in different phases (three at least), which are well documented by lateral moraines, kame terraces and small marginal moraine systems. A first phase of retreat was dated 14C 16.21 ± 50 ka BP, whereas the complete disappearance of the glacier from the Vallone Bellunese occurred probably before 15 ka 14C BP, according to fluvial deposits dating back to 14C 13.16 ± 210 ka BP at Sedico (#1 in fig. 1) and pollen analysis and counting of rhythmic sediments in a lacustrine sequence at Modolo (#2 in fig. 1; Pellegrini, 2000). The retreat of the glacier allowed the development of pioneering vegetation consisting of herbs and shrubs, as documented by pollen analysis of the silt at the bottom of the Val Piana peat bog (#3 in fig. 1) and of the lacustrine sediments at the bottom of the Modolo sequence (Pellegrini, 2000). When the Piave glacier retreated from the Vallone Bellunese, as well as from the Lapisina Valley and Quero Canyon, several large landslides took place (Pellegrini and Surian, 1996; Pellegrini et al., 2004; Pellegrini et al., 2006a, 2006b). Two of them, the Fadalto and Marziai landslides, had major effects altering the Piave River course and sediment transfer, since landslide deposits dammed the valley. The Fadalto landslide caused the formation of the S. Croce Lake (fig. 2) and diverted the Piave River into the Vallone Bellunese and Quero Canyon. The Marziai landslide, determined the formation of a lake about 20 km long, which was filled between 17 and 15 ka 14C BP (Pellegrini et al., 2006b). The Fadalto and Marziai landslides were not dated precisely, but they occurred in the first phases of deglaciation (Pellegrini et al., 2006a; 2006b). Besides large landslides, effects of deglaciation on slope processes have been documented in the Soligo valley (#15 fig. 1; Casadoro et al., 1976) and in other Alpine areas (Vescovi et al., 2007). Deposition of thick slope deposits (about 40 m thick) occurred in the Soligo valley at ca 15 ka 14C BP, when the valley bottom was already covered by an open forest of Larixdecidua (Casadoro et al., 1976; Friedrich et al., 1999). After deglaciation of the Vallone Bellunese a long phase of alluvial sedimentation followed, lasting approximately from 15 to 8 ka 14C BP. This phase has been investigated extensively through geomorphological surveying, radiometric dating, drillings, and geophysical investigations (Pellegrini and Zambrano, 1979; Surian, 1996; 1998; Pellegrini, 2000; Surian and Pellegrini, 2000). The total thickness of the valley fill varies along the Vallone Bellunese and ranges from 35-40 m at Cesa to 270 m at Ponte nelle Alpi (#6 and #7 in fig. 1; Surian and Pellegrini, 2000). The lower part of the fill is composed of glacigenic and lacustrine sediments, while the upper part of fluvial sediments (mainly gravels) for which some chronological constraints are available (i.e. radiocarbon dating of organic sediments and tree trunks). Specifically, the oldest date for this phase is 13.16 ± 210 ka 14C BP at Sedico (#1 in fig.1) and the youngest is 8.215 ± 115 ka 14C BP at La Venegia (Belluno; #8 in fig.1). The latter date refers to the highest alluvial fan-surface of the Ardo Torrent which is morpho-stratigraphically correlated with the highest terrace of the Piave River (Ponte nelle Alpi-Belluno terrace; Surian, 1996). The terraces of the Piave and its tributaries in the Vallone Bellunese are shown as two cross-sections in fig. 2 a and b. Upstream (fig. 2a) the highest terrace is about 25 m above the present floodplain. The more downstream section (fig. 2b) shows that terraces of tributaries have a different degree of preservation due to Piave lateral erosion. From about 15 to 8 ka 14C BP the development of forest in the Vallone Bellunese is documented by pollen data from sites located in an altitude range of 1000-400 m a.s.l. The first phase was characterized by open vegetation with Pinus mugo scrub and shrub-tundra growing at Palughetto (#16 in fig. 1; 1040 m a.s.l.) in the Cansiglio Plateau (Vescovi et al., 2007), at Chiesurazza (#10 in fig. 1; 460 m a.s.l.) on the northern slope of the Vallone Bellunese (Albanese, 2003) and at Modolo (#2 in fig.1; 424 m a.s.l.) on the southern slope (Pellegrini et al., 2005). Forest vegetation with mainly conifer trees developed after 12 ka 14C BP at the same sites. Coeval with known climate improvement, the beginning of the Holocene saw the development of mixed forest with conifers and thermophilous trees at Palughetto, Col Palù (#11 in fig. 1; 562 m a.s.l.) on the northern slope (Gelmetti, 1994-95), at Chiesurazza and at Modolo. Successive vegetation developments reflect those in the wider region in the Southern foreland of the Alps (e.g. summarized by E. Vescovi et al., 2007) with good coincidence in timing. The development of forest vegetation may have increased the stability of the valley slopes during the Lateglacial up to the beginning of the Holocene. The phase of sedimentation was followed by channel bed downcutting, accompanied by the formation of terraces (Surian, 1996). Six terrace levels are identified, of which the highest is best preserved (e.g. section A-A’, fig. 2) and of which the age of abandonment marks the end of the sedimentation phase. The relative height of the highest terrace above modern river level decreases downstream from about 30 m at Ponte nelle Alpi to 6 m at Lentiai (#12 in fig. 1). The younger terrace levels lack individual chronological data, timing the progress of incision and possible phases of interrupted incision. The different terrace levels prove that the phase of incision has not been continuous but interrupted by periods of bed-level stability (equilibrium) and, possibly, of channel aggradation. In the Vallone Bellunese, land use and mainly the ploughing and clearance practices related to agriculture and forestry could have influenced the sedimentary input in the Piave since Late Prehistory; the human impact on the forest cover is recorded by the sudden decrease of Quercus pollen in the pollen diagram of Col Palù (Gelmetti, 1994-95) and in the pollen diagram of Modolo (S1; Pellegrini et al., 2005) around 4 ka BC and at 1.9 ka BC respectively. It is likely that channel widening and aggradation occurred from the 15th to the 19th century, similarly to several French Alpine rivers (Bravard, 1989; Piegay et al., 2006), in response to climatic changes (Little Ice Age) and human activities (deforestation; Surian et al., 2009). The river channel has undergone a significant phase of incision (bed-level lowering in the order of 1-2 m) over the last 100 years. The main cause has been the reduction of sediment supply due to a range of human activities, at reach (gravel mining) and basin scale (dam construction, reforestation, torrent-control works) (Surian, 1999; Da Canal et al., 2007; Surian et al., 2008). Incision, associated with channel narrowing, was intense during the 1970s and 1980s, while it has been replaced by aggradation or bed-level stability over the last 15-20 years, probably in relation to termination of in-channel mining.

Fig. 2 – Representative cross-sections in the Vallone Bellunese and Quero Canyon (mountain basin).
Fig. 2 – Coupes représentatives du Vallone Bellunese et des gorges du Quero (bassin de montagne)

Fig. 2 – Representative cross-sections in the Vallone Bellunese and Quero Canyon (mountain basin).Fig. 2 – Coupes représentatives du Vallone Bellunese et des gorges du Quero (bassin de montagne)

a: Cross-section in the upstream sector of the Vallone Bellunese showing the highest terrace (“Pra d’Anta”) and three lower terraces (“Soccher”) (modified from Surian, 1998); b: Cross-section in the lower sector of the Vallone Bellunese showing the highest terraces of the Veses and Terche Torrents (respectively on the left and right side of the section; modified from Surian, 1998); c: Cross-section in the Quero Canyon, 1 km upstream of the Marziai landslide, showing the lacustrine deposition that occurred upstream of the landslide (modified from Pellegrini et al., 2006b); d: Oblique view of DEM of the Quero Canyon and Marziai landslide, showing location of the cross-section C-C’; e: Oblique view of DEM of the lower part of the mountain basin, showing the Vallone Bellunese (see location of sections A-A’ and B-B’), the Fadalto landslide, the Vittorio Veneto end-moraine system, and the Montello Hill. 1: Bedrock; 2: Slope deposits; 3: Fluvial deposits (gravel); 4: Fluvial deposits (sand and silt); 5: Alluvial fan deposits (gravel); 6: Lacustrine deposits (silt and clay); 7: Radiocarbon dating, uncalibrated; 8: Borehole.
a : Coupe du secteur amont du Vallone Bellunese montrant la plus haute terrasse (« Pra d’Anta ») et trois terrasses inférieures (« Soccher » ; d’après Surian, 1998, modifié) ; b : Coupe du secteur aval du Vallone Bellunese montrant les terrasses supérieures des torrents Veses et Terche (respectivement à gauche et à droite de la coupe ; d’après Surian, 1998, modifié) ; c : Coupe dans les gorges du Quero, 1 km en amont du glissement de terrain de Marziai, montrant les dépôts lacustres de comblement (d’après Pellegrini et al., 2006b, modifié) ; d : MNT des gorges du Quero et du glissement de terrain de Marziai et emplacement de la coupe C-C’ ; e : MNT de la zone aval du bassin de montagne, montrant le Vallone Bellunese (noter l’emplacement des coupes A-A’ et B-B’), le glissement de terrain de Fadalto, le système de moraines terminales de Vittorio Veneto et la colline de Montello. 1 : Lit rocheux ; 2 : Dépôts de pente ; 3 : Alluvions (graviers) ; 4 : Alluvions (sables et limons) ; 5 : Dépôt de cône alluvial (graviers) ; 6 : Dépôts lacustres (limons et argiles) ; 7 : Datation radiocarbone, non calibrée ; 8 : Sondage.

9The Quero Canyon (about 15 km in length) has been investigated with less detail than the Vallone Bellunese, but some useful information can be derived from a recent study by G.B. Pellegrini et al. (2006a, 2006b), which focuses on the Marziai landslide and its effects on paleohydrographical evolution. A small portion of landslide debris outcrops at present, but the scar area is still well preserved (fig. 2d). G.B. Pellegrini et al. (2006b) show that the valley fill in the upper part of the Quero Canyon, upstream of the Marziai landslide that dammed the valley bottom, is about 100 m thick and composed of lacustrine sediments, fluvial deposits (gravels) and landslide deposits. Such reconstruction of the valley fill is based on several drillings and geoelectrical surveys (fig. 2c). Chronological constraints in this area come only from pollen analyses - results of radiometric dating as 14C and OSL were unsuccessful -, which suggest that lacustrine sedimentation occurred probably between 17 and 15 ka 14C BP. It is likely that gravel deposition occurred mainly in the Lateglacial or beginning of the Holocene, as defined in the Vallone Bellunese. There are no terraces along the Quero Canyon, which suggest that this valley acted as a transfer zone of sediments all over the Holocene.

10The Quartier del Piave is a small intermontane basin of tectonic origin, which corresponds to the Soligo anticline (Zanferrari et al., 1982). This depression is bounded to the north by low hills cut in Tertiary marls, sandstones and conglomerates (Regione Veneto, 1990) and to the south by the Montello hill (fig. 1 and fig. 2). The latter is an actively uplifting anticline in Upper Miocene conglomerates, on top of the south-verging Sacile thrust (Ferrarese et al., 1998; Benedetti et al., 2000; Fantoni et al., 2002). Due to interaction between the anticline uplift and fluvial processes during the Pleistocene, the Piave River reached the plain to the west and to the east of the Montello Hill alternately. Before the onset of the LGM the Piave River abandoned the gaps on the western side of the Montello Hill in favor of the eastern one, at Nervesa, that is still active. This occurred as part of the fluvial capture of the Piave River by the Soligo River in the eastern sector of the Quartier del Piave (Venzo et al., 1977). During the LGM, in the Quartier del Piave there was the confluence between the glaciofluvial streams from the Quero and the Gai (#17 in fig. 1) glacial fronts (Venzo et al., 1977). These streams are thought to have formed a wide fan which occupied most of the Quartier del Piave. Recent soil surveys (Regione Veneto, 2005; ARPAV, 2008), indicate that this may not be the case. In fact, the alfisols developed on the top of the presumed Würm III sequence are of the same maturity and history as those on the Montebelluna megafan, which is considered of pre-LGM age on the basis of its chronostratigraphic correlation with Nervesa megafan (Mozzi, 2005); this indicates that the Quartier del Piave alluvial deposits are pre-LGM. These surveys also indicate that there are no significant LGM glaciofluvial outcrops in the area. In fact, post-glacial deposition by the rivers Piave and Soligo occupies the whole width of the former LGM valley at levels below a terrace scarp cut in the pre-LGM deposits. No geological data are presently available on bedrock geometry and fluvial deposit thickness beneath the alluvial surface. Nevertheless, the common outcropping of bedrock conglomerates in the present riverbed at the SE end of the Quartier del Piave suggests that the alluvium is rather thin.

The alluvial and coastal plain

11The alluvial plain of the Piave River hosts a series of individual large depositional bodies extending from the foothill area to the sea floor beyond the present coast line (fig. 1). The Montebelluna megafan extends from the western gap of Montello Hill but, due to its pre-LGM age (Mozzi, 2005; Fontana et al., 2008), it will be not discussed in this paper (see fig. 3). Prior to the LGM the Piave River switched its course to a position East of Montello Hill, flowing through the Nervesa passage, where it started building the Nervesa megafan from the LGM onwards. In the proximal sector of this megafan, the LGM stratigraphic unit consists of a 15-30 m thick sequence of gravels and sandy gravels deposited by braided rivers, while the distal sector is formed by fine-dominated deposits with some sandy channels. The latter setting, which characterizes the so-called “lower plain”, is represented by the stratigraphic sections of fig. 4. In the Ca’ Tron-Sile profile (fig. 4a), in the western portion of the megafan, the characteristic alternation of overbank, crevasse, natural-levee and floodplain deposits with common thin peat intercalations is highlighted. Sand channel bodies with thicknesses varying between 0.5 m to a few meters form ribbon-shaped bodies elongated according to the slope of the surface (Bondesan et al., 2004a; Fontana et al. 2004, Miola et al., 2006; Fontana et al. 2008; Bondesan et al., 2008). A similar setting is recognizable in the core TdM (Torre di Mosto; fig. 4c), which revealed a sequence typical of the eastern sector of the Piave depositional system. In this sequence, the coarsest LGM sediments are fine-medium sands. The discontinuity and the limited thickness of the sand bodies is consistent with braided to wandering channels characterized by recurrent migration through avulsions, as described in all the LGM megafans of the Venetian-Friulian Plain (Bondesan et al., 2002; Mozzi, 2005; Miola et al., 2006; Fontana, 2006; Fontana et al., 2008; Bondesan et al., 2008). Peat formation in the LGM alluvial plain occurred in poorly drained depressions where organic production prevailed over alluvial minerogenic sediment delivery. The rapid vertical aggradation and high lateral mobility of the active channel belts did not allow the evolution of the vegetation, but only a recurrent development of fens and swamps for short periods probably in the order of 10-102 years (Miola et al., 2006). The Piave glacier maximum advance in the area of Vittorio Veneto dates back to 17.6 ka 14C BP (Bondesan et al., 2002). In that period, the Nervesa megafan achieved its maximum areal extent (Mozzi, 2005; Fontana et al., 2008). The radiocarbon datings available for the LGM depositional units of the Piave River (e.g. fig. 4 a and c and table 1) demonstrate their aggradation after 22 ka 14C BP, i.e. in the second part of the LGM. A raw estimate of the average sedimentary rates during this phase was obtained analyzing the intercalated radiocarbon dated layers in the Ca’ Tron section and in core TdM (fig. 4c) and comparing the thickness of the sediments with their calibrated age. The average sedimentation rate was at least 2-3 mm/a, with peaks of 6 mm/a. These are minimum rates because compaction of intercalated peats was not considered. The data confirm that alluvial aggradation occurred at the same time as maximum glacial expansion, testifying that sediment transfer between the Vallone Belunese and downstream alluvial plain was very efficient at that time. After 20 ka BP, in the final part of LGM, when the deglaciation phase had already started, alluvial sedimentation continued but the rate of aggradation dropped (Mozzi, 2005) and stopped completely soon after 16.5 ka 14C BP (fig. 4a).

Fig. 3 – Age of the alluvial surfaces in the Venetian-Friulian Plain.
Fig. 3 – Ages des surfaces alluviales de la plaine vénitienne-frioulane.

Fig. 3 – Age of the alluvial surfaces in the Venetian-Friulian Plain.Fig. 3 – Ages des surfaces alluviales de la plaine vénitienne-frioulane.

1: Fluvial scarp; 2: Upper limit of spring belt; 3: Inner limit of Holocene lagoon deposits; 4: Inner limit of Holocene coastal deposits; 5: Site with important radiocarbon dating; 6: Trace of stratigraphic section represented in fig. 4; 7: Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) end-moraines systems; 8: Pre-LGM; 9: LGM; 10: Post-LGM (modified from Fontana et al., 2008).
1 : Escarpement fluvial ; 2 : Limite supérieure des résurgences ; 3 : Limite intérieure des dépôts lagunaires holocènes ; 4 : Limite interne des dépôts côtiers holocènes ; 5 : Localisation des principales datations radiocarbone ; 6 : Tracé des coupes sur fig. 4 ; 7 : Système de moraines frontales du Dernier Maximum Glaciaire (DMG) ; 8 : Pré-DMG ; 9 : DMG ; 10 : Post-DMG (d’après Fontana et al., 2008, modifié).

12A dramatic non depositional/erosive phase started at the end of LGM, when deglaciation of the lowest sectors of the South Eastern Alps was probably completed (Pellegrini et al., 2005; Zanferrari et al., 2008). Sedimentation was confined to relative narrow zones between 16.5 and 6.5 ka 14C BP. Some early post-LGM channel incisions, cut in the LGM alluvial deposits, have been recognized in boreholes (fig. 4b). Occasional deep cores show the presence of coarse gravel channel bodies of Lateglacial age deposited inside the incisions to depth of 15 to 25 m (base of gravels) below the LGM alluvial fan surface. Typically, these incisions have been re-used by the Piave since the middle Holocene, either to route channels or to trap flood sediments (fig. 4b). The causes of the post-LGM incision seem to be closely related to the evolution of the mountain catchment, but these aspects are considered further in the Discussion. The post-LGM river entrenchment resulted in the formation of laterally extensive non-depositional interfluve areas, where vegetation development has not been interrupted any further by flooding and rapid vertical aggradation. As a consequence, marked soil development took place and since the Early Holocene the oak forest that covered the Friulian plain (Favaretto and Sostizzo, 2006), probably extended also into the Piave plain. The pedogenesis led to the formation of indurated and pedogenized horizons, regionally known as caranto, which mainly developed during the early Holocene due to forest cover and the humid-warm climate of that period (Mozzi et al., 2003). This caranto paleosol has cm-thick carbonate concretions and mottling features that characterize the Bk and Ck horizons of an overconsolidated soil. The properties and stratigraphic significance of the caranto in the Venice lagoon and surrounding mainland has been discussed extensively (Gatto and Previatello, 1974; Tosi, 1994; Mozzi et al., 2003). It characterizes most of the outcropping LGM surface and can be easily recognized in the subsoil. The caranto normally marks the top of the LGM fluvial deposits buried by the Holocene lagoon or alluvial deposits (fig. 4c). The absence of this paleosol may indicate that alluvial incision or coastal erosion took place after LGM, but the formation of caranto was strongly related to the existence of silty or clay sediments and to topographic conditions, thus, in some limited areas where LGM channel sands are present, the soil is not characterized by an indurated horizon. After about 8 ka 14C BP, the Adriatic coastline moved from the position today occupied by the Po delta to the North, as a consequence of proceeding post-glacial sea-level rise (Correggiari et al., 1996). The present lagoons originate from the time when the Holocene marine high-stand was reached, initiating about 6-4.5 ka 14C BP (Favero and Serandrei Barbero, 1980; Serandrei Barbero et al., 2001; Canali et al., 2007). Lagoon ingression is testified in the core TdM (fig. 4c) where around 6.5 ka 14C BP a brackish environment transgressed over the submerged LGM alluvial plain at ~8 m below present a.s.l. Similar data have been collected in the core Palazzetto (#20 in fig. 1), near San Donà di Piave, where around 6 ka 14C BP a brackish environment submerged the LGM alluvial plain (Bondesan et al., 2003 a).

13The Piave coastal plain is formed by subrecent and modern delta lobes and sequences of spits and beach barriers. The oldest, in the Torre di Fine area (#21 in fig. 1), dates between 6 and 4.5 ka 14C BP, while at least four stages of progradation/erosion are documented in the Cortellazzo area (#20 in fig. 1) from 4.5 to 3 ka 14C BP (Castiglioni and Favero, 1987; Bondesan et al., 2003b; Brambati et al., 2003; Bondesan and Meneghel, 2004). The sandy littoral deposition is limited to a narrow coastal belt, with shoreface deposits encountered down to -15/-20 isobaths. On the deeper sea-floor, the fluvial LGM deposits regularly crop out and are covered by just a few-decimeters to 1-m-thick veneer of marine deposits, separated by an erosive surface (Correggiari et al., 1996; Cattaneo et al., 2007). Pre-existing topography strongly influenced the transgression and the inland expansion of the lagoon-marine environment across ancient floodplains. In the area of Cortellazzo, near the present Piave River mouth, a fossil inlet filled with 30 m of prodelta laminated muds has been found (Bondesan et al., 2008). Even after the formation of lagoons, inland, far from the coast, the post-LGM channel belts of the Piave kept occupying their inherited routes along incised channels until ca. 4-3 ka 14C BP. In the Nervesa megafan, middle Holocene fluvial channels were slightly incised and alluvial sedimentation occurred only inside the incisions or in the very proximal areas (from 10 to 150 m distance; fig. 4b).

14During the 2nd millennium BC a new phase of alluvial deposition started in the distal sector of the plain through the formation of alluvial ridges related to meander belts. The oldest Holocene alluvial ridge of a Piave river channel belt developed downstream from the city of S. Donà after 4 ka 14C BP. This late-Holocene aggrading trend is also evidenced upstream in the Piave megafan. For example, Piave deposits had completely infilled a 12 m deep incision along the Sile river area by 3.6 ka 14C BP (fig. 4a) and organic deposits dating 4-2 ka 14C BP underlie Piave fluvial deposits in the NW sector of the Nervesa megafan. The thickness of Holocene sediments burying Pleistocene surfaces reaches 5 m in proximity to channel belts, whereas at greater distances the Holocene floodplain sequence is only 1-3 m thick (Bondesan et al., 2008). The source of the sediments delivered to the plain during this phase might be explained by climate deterioration occurring during the second half of the Sub-boreal (Macklin and Lewin, 2008), but protohistoric human interference is another important factor to take into consideration (see Discussion paragraph). In the Roman period (2nd century BC-3rd century AD), downstream of Ponte di Piave, the channel of the Piave River was narrower than the present day channel and geomorphological and geological surveys highlight the lack of avulsions for several centuries around 2 ka BP (Bondesan and Meneghel, 2004; Bondesan et al., 2008). This indicates that the Piave River was rather stable at that time and probably characterized by lower discharge. An important period of floods is evident during the Early Middle Ages (4th-5th to 10th century AD). This interval coincides with a period of higher rainfall and also with the collapse of the field and drainage systems settled during the Roman period (Dall’Aglio, 1994). In the Early Middle Ages, around the 6th century AD, different ridges were formed by the Piave River by fluvial avulsion; the megafan also went through an aggradation phase in the eastern sector near the apex (Bondesan et al., 2002).

15In recent centuries direct human interference has deeply affected river pathways, sediment routing and dispersal in the study area and in the wider region of the Po Plain (Marchetti, 2002). The lower tract of the Piave plain is characterized by artificial river diversions made downstream of S. Donà di Piave by the Venetian Republic between the 15th and 17th century AD (Bondesan and Meneghel, 2004). In order to avoid sedimentation in the Venice lagoon, human management targeted all the rivers around it and attempted to preserve large areas under tidal influence by mitigating fluvial progradation. The Piave River had a branch flowing into the northern Lagoon of Venice, which was diverted in the 17th century. The modern delta was rapidly developing in the 15th century, causing sedimentation at the Venice lagoon inlet due to down drift coastal sediment transport. Some projects which planned to move the river outlet northward failed because of the scarce slope of the coastal plain and the excessive extension of the newly dug canals (Bondesan and Furlanetto, 2004). The sedimentary load was still very high even in the 20th century and still affected the Venice lagoon barrier-islands and spits; the Cavallino spit (#23 in fig. 1) experienced a 2 km seaward progradation in about 80 years due to the Piave’s solid discharge. Since the 18th century the Piave plain can be considered an embankment plain where sedimentation has been drastically reduced, except for catastrophic floods. In the past, the coastal belt was characterized by brackish environments for about 20 km landward from the present coastline and only in the 19th and 20th centuries were these areas artificially reclaimed. Reclamation induced rapid and widespread subsidence over large areas (Teatini et al., 2005).

16As in the Vallone Bellunese, also in the high alluvial plain the river channel underwent a significant phase of narrowing (73%, in comparison with the channel width in the beginning of the 19th century) and incision (up to 3 m) during the 20th century (Surian, 1999; Surian et al., 2008). Such channel adjustments were due to human activities, in particular in-channel gravel mining, which has dramatically altered the sediment regime.

Fig. 4 – Representative stratigraphic sections of the distal sector of the depositional system of Piave River
Fig. 4 – Coupes stratigraphiques représentatives du secteur distal du système sédimentaire du Piave

Fig. 4 – Representative stratigraphic sections of the distal sector of the depositional system of Piave RiverFig. 4 – Coupes stratigraphiques représentatives du secteur distal du système sédimentaire du Piave

(see fig. 3 for location). a: Stratigraphic section between Sile R. and Ca’ Tron, illustrating the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) deposits and the incision beneath the Sile R. (modified from Miola et al., 2006). 1: Channel deposits (fine sand); 2: Natural levee deposits (sandy silt); 3: Flood plain deposits (silt and clay); 4: LGM/post-LGM unconformity; 5: Bog deposits (peat/organic silt); 6: Infilling of Sile incision (sand of Piave R.); 7: Sile R. ridge deposits (sandy silt); 8: Radiocarbon dating; 9: “Caranto” paleosol; 10: Borehole; 11: Penetrometry; b: Simplified stratigraphic section of a post-LGM incision in the area of Meolo (modified from Bondesan et al., 2008). 1: LGM alluvial plain; 2: Lateglacial early Holocene sandy gravel; 3: Lateglacial early Holocene sand; 4: Flood plain and swamp deposits; 5: Alluvial plain and levee deposits; 6: Holocene channel (sand to fine gravel); 7: “Caranto” paleosol; 8: LGM/post-LGM unconformity; 9: Residual channel; c: Stratigraphic log of the core Torre di Mosto (TdM; modified from Bondesan et al., in press).
(voir localisation sur fig. 3). a : Coupe stratigraphique entre le fleuve Sile et Ca’ Tron, montrant les dépôts Dernier Maximum Glaciaire (DMG) et la discordance de ravinement à l’aplomb du Sile (d’après Miola et al., 2006, modifié). 1 : Dépôts de chenal (sables fins) ; 2 : Dépôts de levée de berge naturelle (limons sableux) ; 3 : Dépôts de plaine d’inondation (limons et argiles) ; 4 : Discontinuité DMG/post-DMG ; 5 : Dépôts de marécage (tourbe/limons organiques) ; 6 : Remblaiement de l’entaille du Sile (sables du fleuve Piave) ; 7 : Dépôts du bourrelet alluvial du fleuve Sile (limons sableux) ; 8 : Datation radiocarbone ; 9 : paléosol “Caranto” ; 10 : Sondage ; 11 : Pénétrométrie ; b : Coupe stratigraphique simplifiée de l’incision post-DMG aux alentours de Meolo (d’après Bondesan et al., 2008, modifié). 1 : Plaine alluviale du DMG ; 2 : Graviers sableux du Tardiglaciaire et début de l’Holocène ; 3 : Sables du Tardiglaciaire et début de l’Holocène ; 4 : Dépôts de plaine d’inondation et de marécage ; 5 : Dépôts de plaine alluviale et de levée de berge ; 6 : Chenal holocène (sables et graviers fins) ; 7 : paléosol “Caranto” ; 8 : Discontinuité DMG/post-DMG ; 9 : Chenal résiduel ; c : Stratigraphie du sondage TdM (Torre di Mosto ; Bondesan et al., sous presse, modifié).

Discussion

17A simplified diagram of the different phases of sedimentation/erosion that occurred in the Piave River system in the last 20 ka 14C BP, is shown in fig. 5. During the LGM, the glacial and periglacial conditions in the mountain area caused the production of large volumes of sediments. Some of these sediments were stored as glacial till, especially in the wide Vallone Bellunese and in the Quero (#18 in fig. 1), Vittorio Veneto and Gai (#17 in fig. 1) terminal moraines, but a large part was transferred to the alluvial plain through the glaciofluvial system. This led to widespread aggradation in the alluvial plain, both in the sandur of Vittorio Veneto and in the Nervesa megafan. In this latter alluvial system, which received glaciofuvial streams from both Quero and Gai glacial fronts, LGM deposits have anaverage thickness of 15-25 m. The chronology of the LGM sedimentation in the alluvial plain highlights that considerable aggradation occurred after 22 ka 14C BP. These data match the situation recognized in the Tagliamento system (Fontana, 2006; Monegato et al., 2007) and other Alpine rivers of NE Italy (Fontana et al., 2008). The Quartier del Piave valley sector, immediately downstream of Quero and Gai, most likely acted as a prevalent sediment by-pass to the Nervesa megafan.

Fig. 5 – Sedimentary phases in the Piave River basin over the last 20 ka.
Fig. 5 – Phases sédimentaires dans le bassin du Piave au cours des 20 derniers millénaires.

Fig. 5 – Sedimentary phases in the Piave River basin over the last 20 ka. Fig. 5 – Phases sédimentaires dans le bassin du Piave au cours des 20 derniers millénaires.

1: Valley glacier; 2: Glacial advance in highest valleys; 3: Sedimentation; 4: Equilibrium; 5: Erosion.
1 : Glacier de vallée ; 2 : Avancée glaciaire dans les plus hautes vallées ; 3 : Sédimentation ; 4 : Equilibre ; 5 : Erosion.

18The last glacial advance at Vittorio Veneto dates 17.6 ka 14C BP; the retreat of the glacial front was rather fast, considering that at around 15 ka 14C BP the Vallone Bellunese was already ice-free. At the end of LGM and during the first part of the Lateglacial, increasingly wider deglaciated mountain sectors, which were mantled by glacial and periglacial deposits only poorly stabilized by a still sparse vegetation cover, allowedhigh sediment productivity. During deglaciation, in contrast to the situation recognized for the acme of LGM, sediments were not efficiently transferred out of the mountain catchment and most did not reach the alluvial plain. The lakes which formed in late-LGM upstream of the Marziai and Fadalto landslides were efficient sedimentary traps, as testified by their apparently high deposition rates and rapid infilling, and starved the alluvial sedimentary system downstream. This mechanistically explains the abrupt cessation of the LGM sedimentation phase in the alluvial plain, which occurred shortly after 16.2 ka 14C BP, a timing that coincides fairly well with the age of the landslides.

19The erosion/non deposition phase in the alluvial plain comprises the whole Lateglacial and early Holocene, a period when the Marziai lake had already been filled up and could no longer interfere with sediment routing. An explanation for this prolonged sedimentary starvation of the alluvial plain can be found in the phase of main fluvial aggradation which took place in the Vallone Bellunese. Until about 8 ka 14C BP, sediments eroded in the upper drainage basin were mostly stored in this wide and low-gradient sector of the Piave valley and could not reach the plain. Sedimentation in the Vallone Bellunese may be regarded as being forced by excessive sediment yield in relation to the river’s transport capacity. The following middle Holocene incision of the Vallone Bellunese alluvial sequence may be explained in terms of step-by-step adjustments of the river-long profile, in a trend of overall decrease of sediment supply to the fluvial system. In fact, the development of extensive forest vegetation cover in the mountain area, where the Atlantic tree line was even 100-150 m higher than at present, increasingly inhibited slope erosion. Moreover, much of the glacial and periglacial deposits had already been eroded during the Lateglacial/early Holocene. In this new setting, the sediment delivery to the river may have significantly decreased, which, in turn, led to excessive stream power and cannibalization of older alluvium, recorded as incision. The downcutting re-mobilized a large part of the Vallone Bellunese deposits. In the Quero Canyon and in the Quartier del Piave there is no evidence of significant post-LGM deposits, indicating that these sediments were efficiently delivered to the plain. In the Nervesa megafan there was little deposition during the middle Holocene, mostly as infillings of channels incised into the LGM sediments, while in the Piave delta and connected barrier-and-lagoon systems an important increase in deposition started around 6 ka 14C BP. Its recording may be strongly related to sea-level rise which brought the sea to a position comparable to the present one ataround 6.5 ka 14C BP (Lambeck et al., 2004; Amorosi et al., 2008) and improved trapping (e.g. Hoffmann et al, 2009; Syvitski and Saito, 2007). Nevertheless, the rather good timing (possibly < 2 ka time lapse) suggests the possibility that this event of coastal progradation was triggered by the arrival of sediments eroded in the Vallone Bellunese.

20During the late Holocene, another important change in the sedimentary trend can be recognized around 4-3 ka 14C BP. This period is characterized by enhanced avulsive aggradational formation of fluvial ridges in the low plain, while in the Piave delta system there was an important erosive phase and to coastal retreat (Bondesan et al., 2003b), as well recognized along the whole northern Adriatic coast (Stefani and Vincenzi, 2005; Fontana, 2006; Stefani and Fontana 2007). These events fall in the last part of a period of enhanced slope instability in the Dolomites area (Soldati et al., 2004), interpreted by the Authors as being related to higher/more intense precipitation. High-frequency flooding during the second half of the Sub-boreal is also testified in many European alluvial records (e.g. Macklin and Lewin, 2008). The evidence that both alluvial aggradation and coastal erosion fall within a period of climatic instability indicates a climatic trigger for these events. On the other hand, in this period human impact on the landscape starts to be of potential importance. As stated in the General Setting chapter, the solid and water discharge of the Piave River has been fed almost exclusively by the mountain catchment and, therefore, only the ancient human presence in the mountain basin could have directly affected sedimentary flux along the river.

21Archaeological research carried out in the Piave catchment (for a review see Furlanetto, 2000) indicates that significant pre-/proto-historic territorial and economic complexity of society was reached in the mountain catchment only during the late Neolithic and the Copper Age, between the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, with further development from the middle Bronze Age (second half of 2nd millennium BC; Leonardi, 2004). Land use related to these cultural phases, implying the existence of widepread settlements in some sectors of the Vallone Bellunese, led to modifications of local vegetation cover (Gelmetti, 1994-95; Pellegrini et al., 2005) and could have had a notable impact on geomorphic processes and sediment fluxes. This situation is testified in the Lessini Mountains, about 70 km to the west of our study area, where Copper and Bronze Age peopling triggered the formation of thick colluvial wedges along the foothillslopes (Cremaschi, 2000). In the Faverghera karstic plateau, at an altitude of ca. 1500 m on the southern flank of the Vallone Bellunese, there is evidence of Holocene colluvial infilling of dolines related to deforestation and grazing, but without dating elements (Sauro et al., 2009). In general, in the Piave basin there is a lack of data on pre- and proto-historic human impact on soil erosion and the production of colluvial sediments, and thus this crucial aspect cannot be adequately evaluated. After a period of alluvial stability in the Iron Age and Roman times, during the early Middle Ages (5th to 10th century AD) the Nervesa megafan experienced quite an important flooding period with the activation of several different channels, which led to the occupation of the so-called direction of Piave Vecchia (Bondesan et al., 2002; Bondesan and Meneghel 2004). Also in the Isonzo, Tagliamento and Brenta megafans the flooding in the 6th-9th century AD played a major role in the Late Holocene evolution of the alluvial system (Arnaud-Fassetta et al., 2003; Mozzi and Bondesan, 2004; Mozzi et al., 2003; Fontana, 2006). Again there is the problem of recognizing how far this may be attributed to climatic deterioration rather than human impact. The connection of these flood events with a cold, wet period is generally accepted (Castiglioni, 2001), but the abandoning of the Roman field systems both in the mountain valleys and in the plain may also have played a major role. Climatic deterioration during the LIA resulted in the advance of the Dolomite glaciers in the upper Piave basin. Concerning the fluvial system, there is good evidence of widening of the Piave channel in the Vallone Bellunese, which has also been observed in several rivers of the French Alps (Bravard, 1989; Piégay et al., 2006). This may have been caused by an increase of sediment supply to river channels related to heavy rainfall and slope erosion. On the other hand, human-induced deforestation in the Piave catchment is well recorded at this time, and it may have contributed significantly to channel widening. In the downstream part of the Piave system, the Venetian embankments, built as part of the overall hydraulic control on rivers and lagoons carried out by the Venetian Republic since the Middle Ages, did not allow further evolution of the alluvial plain. In the last 100 years, human impact at reach and basin scale has been significant. The overall remarkable alteration of the sediment regime due to in-channel gravel mining, dam construction, reforestation and torrent-control works, led to bed level lowering and channel narrowing in the Vallone Bellunese and foothill plain. Channelization of the river has drastically reduced sedimentation in the distal plain, except during catastrophic floods.

Conclusions

22A large number of studies carried out in the last 15-20 years has allowed the reconstruction of sediment production-transfer-deposition for the whole Piave fluvial system over the last 20 ka 14C BP. This paper highlights the value of such a basin scale approach, as it allows a more complete and sound interpretation of the geomorphic processes and sedimentary phases. The highest sediment production was at the peak of LGM, when sediments were efficiently transferred out of the mountain catchment through glaciofluvial streams flowing from the glacier fronts. This led to maximum expansion/aggradation in the Nervesa megafan. Sediment production in the catchment was still high during early deglaciation, at the end of LGM, but alluvial sediments were mostly trapped in the landslide lakes which occupied the lower Piave valley. There is evidence that the downstream alluvial system immediately reacted to this sharp fall in sediment supply, stopping aggradation in the Nervesa megafan and triggering the formation of fluvial incisions. The Lateglacial and early Holocene are characterized by the trapping of considerable amounts of sediments in the wide intermontane basin of the Vallone Bellunese, and by the consequent sedimentary starvation of the alluvial plain. Infilling of the Vallone Bellunese continued until about 8 ka 14C BP. At this time, the decrease of sediment yield due to reforestation of mountain slopes led to an unbalance between stream capacity and sediment load, forcing fluvial downcutting. The re-mobilization of the alluvial sediments of the Vallone Bellunese valley fill contributed to the delta formation on the Adriatic coast with a < 2 ka delay. Two main phases of channel instability and aggradation are recorded in the distal tract of the Nervesa megafan during the late Holocene, at about 4-3 ka 14C BP and between the 5th and 10th century AD respectively. Both sedimentary events fall within periods of climatic instability, which probably accentuated erosional processes and sediment production in the catchment. Nevertheless, anthropogenic soil erosion related to deforestation and agricultural practices may also have delivered significant amounts of sediments to the fluvial system. Similarly, the LIA widening of the Piave channel in the Vallone Bellunese is most probably the combined result of centennial-scale climatic deterioration and human deforestation. Human impact on the river systems has been overwhelming in the last 100 years, characterized by a dramatic decrease of sediment transport due to a range of human activities (e.g. sediment mining and dams). Climate change has been the main external driving factor in this fluvial system at the transition from a glacial to a non-glacial period, controlling both sediment production in the catchment and sea-level position. Local factors, such as the occurrence of large landslides, lake formation, post-glacial reforestation and valley topography had a major impact on sediment transfer from source to sink. Holocene millennial- and centennial-scale climatic fluctuations were able to modulate the sediment flux, increasingly intermingling with human impact during the last 6 millennia.

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Annexe

Version abrégée en français

Le bassin hydrographique du fleuve Piave, long de 220 km, se situe entre les Alpes orientales italiennes et la mer Adriatique ; il couvre une surface de 3899 km2. Le bassin comprend une zone montagneuse, de la source à Nervesa della Battaglia, et une zone de plaine située entre les Préalpes et le littoral. Dans la zone montagneuse du bassin, la production actuelle de sédiments a été estimée, à partir du remplissage des lacs et des bassins, à 180-200 m3 km-1 an-1. A partir du débouché du fleuve en plaine, les sédiments ont été déposés sur un méga-cône alluvial dont la surface atteint environ 1500 km2.

Dans le bassin montagnard, durant le Dernier Maximum Glaciaire (DMG ; 24-15 ka 14C BP), l’importance de l’englacement est attestée par de nombreuses traces d’abrasion glaciaire. La sédimentation y a été limitée et discontinue. Des dépôts morainiques, restés en place lors du retrait des glaciers au Tardiglaciaire, sont présents dans les hautes vallées (Castiglioni, 1967). Les moraines du Petit Age Glaciaire sont mieux conservées et visibles dans la zone amont des vallées. Avant de déboucher en plaine, le Piave draine une vallée parallèle à la chaîne alpine en longeant un ample synclinal : le Vallone Bellunese. Dans cette zone, les phases de retrait et de disparition du glacier du Piave, qui au cours du DMG présentait une épaisseur de 800 m, ont été étudiées en détail (Pellegrini et al., 2005). Plus en amont, une partie de l’écoulement glaciaire s’orientait vers le sud par le Pas de Fadalto dans la Val Lapisina, avant de déboucher en plaine à Vittorio Veneto. Le retrait du glacier, entamé avant 16 ka cal. BP, était terminé à 15 ka cal. BP. Suite à la disparition du glacier, de grands glissements de terrain ont obstrué la vallée (Pellegrini et Surian, 1996). Le glissement de terrain de Fadalto a provoqué la formation du lac de Santa Croce ; celui de Marziai a donné naissance à un autre lac ultérieurement remblayé par des sédiments fluvio-lacustres. Le Vallone Bellunese a connu une phase de sédimentation entre 15 et 8 ka 14C BP (Surian, 1996). Elle fut suivie par une phase d’incision fluviale à l’origine de 7 niveaux de terrasses. Ceci est à mettre en relation avec l’apport sédimentaire réduit des versants qui étaient désormais boisés. En aval du Vallone Bellunese et avant l’arrivée dans la plaine côtière, le Piave traverse l’étroite vallée du Canale di Quero et un bassin d’origine structurale parallèle à la chaîne alpine, le Quartier del Piave. Ces deux tronçons de vallée sont pauvres en dépôts alluviaux ; ils doivent être considérés comme des secteurs de transit dominant pour les sédiments et ce, depuis le DMG.

En plaine, le Piave a formé de grands éventails alluviaux. Le méga-cône de Montebelluna est constitué de deux corps sédimentaires coalescents qui se séparent à l’ouest de la colline du Montello. Leur âge étant antérieur au DMG, ils n’ont pas été considérés dans cette étude (Mozzi, 2005). Le Piave, dont le cours passait à l’est du Montello, a connu une phase de sédimentation maximale au cours du DMG, formant ainsi le méga-cône de Nervesa. Les dépôts du DMG, constitués de graviers et de sables dans la zone apicale et de dépôts progressivement plus fins avec de minces intercalations de tourbe dans la zone distale, atteignent des épaisseurs de 15 à 30 m. La migration du lit s’est produite principalement par défluviation accompagnée de taux de sédimentation de l’ordre de plusieurs mm/an (Fontana et al., 2008). Le modèle de stratigraphie séquentielle du Piave n’est pas conforme à celui que l’on peut voir dans la littérature existante. Contrairement aux prévisions des modèles de stratigraphie séquentielle en période glaciaire - ces derniers envisagent une érosion fluviale en contexte de bas niveau marin -, dans le cas de la plaine du Piave (i.e., des principaux fleuves de Vénétie et du Frioul), la phase majeure d’aggradation s’est produite au cours du DMG. Cette situation particulière est à mettre sur le compte de l’importance des apports sédimentaires provenant des fronts glaciaires et de la pente doute du plancher adriatique.

Juste après le DMG, après que les glaciers aient quitté la partie basse des vallées, les plaines ont connu une phase érosive sans sédimentation, entre 16,5 et 7 ka 14C BP environ, probablement à cause des effets concomitants des grands glissements de terrain piégeant les sédiments dans les zones montagneuses du bassin et de l’extension de la couverture végétale stabilisant les versants (Fontana et al., 2008). Durant cette phase, le cours du Piave a été confiné dans un chenal en incision dans le méga-cône de Nervesa, qui constituait donc une zone de transit sédimentaire. A partir de 8 ka 14C BP, en raison de la montée du niveau marin, la ligne de côte s’est déplacée vers le nord, favorisant la progradation des principales plaines deltaïques et la formation de lagunes (Serandrei Barbero et al., 2001 ; Amorosi et al., 2008). La sédimentation dans les zones distales du cône détritique a repris à partir de l’Holocène moyen, en partie suite à la remobilisation des sédiments érodés dans le Vallone Bellunese. Aux alentours de 4 ka 14C BP, débute une nouvelle phase de sédimentation dans le secteur distal du méga-cône de Nervesa, avec le remblaiement des chenaux et la formation de bourrelets alluviaux (Fontana et al., 2008). Les sédiments holocènes atteignent des épaisseurs maximales, comprises entre 4 et 6 m au niveau des bourrelets alluviaux et entre 1 et 3 m dans la plaine d’inondation.

La période romaine est caractérisée par sa stabilité, alors qu’à partir du Haut Moyen Age se produisent plusieurs inondations, aussi bien du Piave que des autres fleuves du nord-est de l’Italie (Bondesan et Meneghel, 2004). L’élargissement du lit du Piave dans la zone de basses montagnes durant le XIXe siècle s’accorde avec une charge solide élevée, probablement liée à la détérioration du climat du Petit Age Glaciaire et/ou à la déforestation anthropique. Les cent dernières années sont caractérisées par une nette diminution du transport solide, due aux interventions humaines sur le fleuve (gravières, digues, aménagements hydrauliques et forestiers), qui ont conduit à une forte incision et à une contraction du lit (Surian, 1999). Actuellement, le cours du Piave est en grande partie chenalisé, ce qui a pour conséquence de réduire les apports sédimentaires dans la zone distale de la plaine d’inondation.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 – Simplified map of the Piave River basin.Fig. 1 – Carte simplifiée du bassin du Piave.
Légende 1: Piave River; 2: fluvial terrace; 3: Upper limit of spring belt; 4: Piave River watershed; 5: Floodplain of groundwater-fed rivers; 6: Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) end-moraines systems; 7: Site cited in the text; 8: Site with radiocarbon dating. A: Brenta River system; B: Montebelluna megafan; C: Nervesa megafan; D: Cervada-Meschio fan; E: Cellina River fan; F: Tagliamento River megafan; G: Meduna River fan; H: Corno River fan. Sites cited in the text: 1: Sedico; 2: Modolo; 3: Valpiana; 4: Fadalto; 5: Marziai; 6: Cesa; 7: Ponte nelle Alpi; 8: La Venegia; 9: Belluno; 10: Chiesurazza; 11: Col Palù; 12: Lentiai; 13: Lipoi; 14: Cellarda; 15: Fornaci di Revine; 16: Palughetto; 17: Ca’ Tron; 18: Palazzetto; 19: Torre di Fine; 20: Cortellazzo; 21: Cavallino.
URL http://geomorphologie.revues.org/docannexe/image/7639/img-1.png
Fichier image/png, 388k
Titre Tab. 1 – Most representative radiocarbon datings for the geomorphological evolution of Piave River system. Tab. 1 – Sélection des datations radiocarbone les plus représentatives de l’évolution géomorphologique du système hydrologique du Piave.
Légende References cited in the table: a: Pellegrini, 2000; b: Pellegrini et al., 2005; c: Pellegrini and Zambrano, 1979; d: Vescovi et al., 2007; e: Casadoro et al., 1976; f: Bondesan and Meneghel, 2004; g: Bondesan et al., 2002; h: Ghedini et al., 2002; i: Bondesan et al., in press; l: Mozzi, 1995; m: Bondesan et al., 2008; n: Miola et al., 2006; o: Canali et al., 2007; p: Fontes and Bortolami, 1973.Références citées dans le tableau : a : Pellegrini, 2000 ; b : Pellegrini et al., 2005 ; c : Pellegrini et Zambrano, 1979 ; d : Vescovi et al., 2007 ; e : Casadoro et al., 1976 ; f : Bondesan et Meneghel, 2004 ; g : Bondesan et al., 2002 ; h : Ghedini et al., 2002 ; i : Bondesan et al., in press ; l : Mozzi, 1995 ; m : Bondesan et al., 2008 ; n : Miola et al., 2006 ; o : Canali et al., 2007 ; p : Fontes et Bortolami, 1973.
URL http://geomorphologie.revues.org/docannexe/image/7639/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,5M
Titre Fig. 2 – Representative cross-sections in the Vallone Bellunese and Quero Canyon (mountain basin).Fig. 2 – Coupes représentatives du Vallone Bellunese et des gorges du Quero (bassin de montagne)
Légende a: Cross-section in the upstream sector of the Vallone Bellunese showing the highest terrace (“Pra d’Anta”) and three lower terraces (“Soccher”) (modified from Surian, 1998); b: Cross-section in the lower sector of the Vallone Bellunese showing the highest terraces of the Veses and Terche Torrents (respectively on the left and right side of the section; modified from Surian, 1998); c: Cross-section in the Quero Canyon, 1 km upstream of the Marziai landslide, showing the lacustrine deposition that occurred upstream of the landslide (modified from Pellegrini et al., 2006b); d: Oblique view of DEM of the Quero Canyon and Marziai landslide, showing location of the cross-section C-C’; e: Oblique view of DEM of the lower part of the mountain basin, showing the Vallone Bellunese (see location of sections A-A’ and B-B’), the Fadalto landslide, the Vittorio Veneto end-moraine system, and the Montello Hill. 1: Bedrock; 2: Slope deposits; 3: Fluvial deposits (gravel); 4: Fluvial deposits (sand and silt); 5: Alluvial fan deposits (gravel); 6: Lacustrine deposits (silt and clay); 7: Radiocarbon dating, uncalibrated; 8: Borehole. a : Coupe du secteur amont du Vallone Bellunese montrant la plus haute terrasse (« Pra d’Anta ») et trois terrasses inférieures (« Soccher » ; d’après Surian, 1998, modifié) ; b : Coupe du secteur aval du Vallone Bellunese montrant les terrasses supérieures des torrents Veses et Terche (respectivement à gauche et à droite de la coupe ; d’après Surian, 1998, modifié) ; c : Coupe dans les gorges du Quero, 1 km en amont du glissement de terrain de Marziai, montrant les dépôts lacustres de comblement (d’après Pellegrini et al., 2006b, modifié) ; d : MNT des gorges du Quero et du glissement de terrain de Marziai et emplacement de la coupe C-C’ ; e : MNT de la zone aval du bassin de montagne, montrant le Vallone Bellunese (noter l’emplacement des coupes A-A’ et B-B’), le glissement de terrain de Fadalto, le système de moraines terminales de Vittorio Veneto et la colline de Montello. 1 : Lit rocheux ; 2 : Dépôts de pente ; 3 : Alluvions (graviers) ; 4 : Alluvions (sables et limons) ; 5 : Dépôt de cône alluvial (graviers) ; 6 : Dépôts lacustres (limons et argiles) ; 7 : Datation radiocarbone, non calibrée ; 8 : Sondage.
URL http://geomorphologie.revues.org/docannexe/image/7639/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 260k
Titre Fig. 3 – Age of the alluvial surfaces in the Venetian-Friulian Plain.Fig. 3 – Ages des surfaces alluviales de la plaine vénitienne-frioulane.
Légende 1: Fluvial scarp; 2: Upper limit of spring belt; 3: Inner limit of Holocene lagoon deposits; 4: Inner limit of Holocene coastal deposits; 5: Site with important radiocarbon dating; 6: Trace of stratigraphic section represented in fig. 4; 7: Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) end-moraines systems; 8: Pre-LGM; 9: LGM; 10: Post-LGM (modified from Fontana et al., 2008).1 : Escarpement fluvial ; 2 : Limite supérieure des résurgences ; 3 : Limite intérieure des dépôts lagunaires holocènes ; 4 : Limite interne des dépôts côtiers holocènes ; 5 : Localisation des principales datations radiocarbone ; 6 : Tracé des coupes sur fig. 4 ; 7 : Système de moraines frontales du Dernier Maximum Glaciaire (DMG) ; 8 : Pré-DMG ; 9 : DMG ; 10 : Post-DMG (d’après Fontana et al., 2008, modifié).
URL http://geomorphologie.revues.org/docannexe/image/7639/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 408k
Titre Fig. 4 – Representative stratigraphic sections of the distal sector of the depositional system of Piave RiverFig. 4 – Coupes stratigraphiques représentatives du secteur distal du système sédimentaire du Piave
Légende (see fig. 3 for location). a: Stratigraphic section between Sile R. and Ca’ Tron, illustrating the Late Glacial Maximum (LGM) deposits and the incision beneath the Sile R. (modified from Miola et al., 2006). 1: Channel deposits (fine sand); 2: Natural levee deposits (sandy silt); 3: Flood plain deposits (silt and clay); 4: LGM/post-LGM unconformity; 5: Bog deposits (peat/organic silt); 6: Infilling of Sile incision (sand of Piave R.); 7: Sile R. ridge deposits (sandy silt); 8: Radiocarbon dating; 9: “Caranto” paleosol; 10: Borehole; 11: Penetrometry; b: Simplified stratigraphic section of a post-LGM incision in the area of Meolo (modified from Bondesan et al., 2008). 1: LGM alluvial plain; 2: Lateglacial early Holocene sandy gravel; 3: Lateglacial early Holocene sand; 4: Flood plain and swamp deposits; 5: Alluvial plain and levee deposits; 6: Holocene channel (sand to fine gravel); 7: “Caranto” paleosol; 8: LGM/post-LGM unconformity; 9: Residual channel; c: Stratigraphic log of the core Torre di Mosto (TdM; modified from Bondesan et al., in press).(voir localisation sur fig. 3). a : Coupe stratigraphique entre le fleuve Sile et Ca’ Tron, montrant les dépôts Dernier Maximum Glaciaire (DMG) et la discordance de ravinement à l’aplomb du Sile (d’après Miola et al., 2006, modifié). 1 : Dépôts de chenal (sables fins) ; 2 : Dépôts de levée de berge naturelle (limons sableux) ; 3 : Dépôts de plaine d’inondation (limons et argiles) ; 4 : Discontinuité DMG/post-DMG ; 5 : Dépôts de marécage (tourbe/limons organiques) ; 6 : Remblaiement de l’entaille du Sile (sables du fleuve Piave) ; 7 : Dépôts du bourrelet alluvial du fleuve Sile (limons sableux) ; 8 : Datation radiocarbone ; 9 : paléosol “Caranto” ; 10 : Sondage ; 11 : Pénétrométrie ; b : Coupe stratigraphique simplifiée de l’incision post-DMG aux alentours de Meolo (d’après Bondesan et al., 2008, modifié). 1 : Plaine alluviale du DMG ; 2 : Graviers sableux du Tardiglaciaire et début de l’Holocène ; 3 : Sables du Tardiglaciaire et début de l’Holocène ; 4 : Dépôts de plaine d’inondation et de marécage ; 5 : Dépôts de plaine alluviale et de levée de berge ; 6 : Chenal holocène (sables et graviers fins) ; 7 : paléosol “Caranto” ; 8 : Discontinuité DMG/post-DMG ; 9 : Chenal résiduel ; c : Stratigraphie du sondage TdM (Torre di Mosto ; Bondesan et al., sous presse, modifié).
URL http://geomorphologie.revues.org/docannexe/image/7639/img-5.jpg
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Titre Fig. 5 – Sedimentary phases in the Piave River basin over the last 20 ka. Fig. 5 – Phases sédimentaires dans le bassin du Piave au cours des 20 derniers millénaires.
Légende 1: Valley glacier; 2: Glacial advance in highest valleys; 3: Sedimentation; 4: Equilibrium; 5: Erosion.1 : Glacier de vallée ; 2 : Avancée glaciaire dans les plus hautes vallées ; 3 : Sédimentation ; 4 : Equilibre ; 5 : Erosion.
URL http://geomorphologie.revues.org/docannexe/image/7639/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 149k
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Alberto Carton, Aldino Bondesan, Alessandro Fontana, Mirco Meneghel, Antonella Miola, Paolo Mozzi, Sandra Primon et Nicola Surian, « Geomorphological evolution and sediment transfer in the Piave River system (northeastern Italy) since the Last Glacial Maximum », Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement, vol. 15 - n° 3 | 2009, 155-174.

Référence électronique

Alberto Carton, Aldino Bondesan, Alessandro Fontana, Mirco Meneghel, Antonella Miola, Paolo Mozzi, Sandra Primon et Nicola Surian, « Geomorphological evolution and sediment transfer in the Piave River system (northeastern Italy) since the Last Glacial Maximum », Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement [En ligne], vol. 15 - n° 3 | 2009, mis en ligne le 01 octobre 2011, consulté le 29 avril 2017. URL : http://geomorphologie.revues.org/7639 ; DOI : 10.4000/geomorphologie.7639

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Auteurs

Alberto Carton

Dipartimento di Geografia, Università degli Studi di Padova, via del Santo 26, 35123 Padova, Italy. Tel. 049 8274093, Fax 049 8274099, e-mail: alberto.carton@unipd.it

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Aldino Bondesan

Dipartimento di Geografia, Università degli Studi di Padova, via del Santo 26, 35123 Padova, Italy. Tel. 049 8274093, Fax 049 8274099

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Alessandro Fontana

Dipartimento di Geografia, Università degli Studi di Padova, via del Santo 26, 35123 Padova, Italy. Tel. 049 8274093, Fax 049 8274099

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Mirco Meneghel

Dipartimento di Geografia, Università degli Studi di Padova, via del Santo 26, 35123 Padova, Italy. Tel. 049 8274093, Fax 049 8274099

Antonella Miola

Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Padova, via U. Bassi, 58/B, 35121 Padova, Italy

Paolo Mozzi

Dipartimento di Geografia, Università degli Studi di Padova, via del Santo 26, 35123 Padova, Italy. Tel. 049 8274093, Fax 049 8274099, e-mail: alberto.carton@unipd.it

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Sandra Primon

Dipartimento di Geografia, Università degli Studi di Padova, via del Santo 26, 35123 Padova, Italy. Tel. 049 8274093, Fax 049 8274099

Nicola Surian

Dipartimento di Geografia, Università degli Studi di Padova, via del Santo 26, 35123 Padova, Italy. Tel. 049 8274093, Fax 049 8274099

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