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X-ray fluorescence microchemical analysis and autoradiography applied to cave deposits: speleothems, detrital rhythmites, ice and prehistoric paintings

Analyses microchimiques par fluorescence X et autoradiographie appliquées aux dépôts de grotte : spéléothèmes, rythmites détritiques, glace et peintures rupestres
Grégory Dandurand, Richard Maire, Richard Ortega, Guillaume Devès, Benjamin Lans, Laurent Morel, Anne-Sophie Perroux, Nathalie Vanara, Laurent Bruxelles, Stéphane Jaillet, Isabelle Billy, Philippe Martinez, Bassam Ghaleb and François Valla
p. 407-426

Abstracts

This article presents recent research on the sedimentary endokarstic infillings in connection with the new contributions of geochemical analysis by autoradiography and X-ray fluorescence (portable analyser, core scanner, micro-XRF, microprobe) in the context of the 'Climanthrope' ANR programme. Coupled with sedimentological analysis (stratigraphy, laser grain size analysis, micromineralogy, and micromorphology), geochemical analysis and imaging refine the study of underground deposits such as carbonated sediments (speleothems), rhythmites, subterranean ice, and prehistoric cave paintings. Formed following a seasonal cycle, stalagmites and rhythmites are likely to provide important data not only on the two main parameters of regional climate, i.e. hydrology and temperature, but also on human impacts (speleothems in urban tunnels) and the rural environment. The microdebris and dusts sampled in subterranean ice record the palaeoenvironment by snow trapping. Parietal paintings can be studied directly with a portable XRF analyser without sampling. In every case, the notion of the 'site effect' is discussed for four French examples (Pyrenees, Aquitaine, Charente, Rhône) and three foreign examples (Italy, Chile, China).

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Editor's notes

Article soumis le 11 août 2010, accepté le 3 janvier 2011

Excerpt

Cairn

Full-text article available to subscribers or on a "pay per view" basis. It will be available on this URL in January 2015.
http://www.cairn.info/revue-geomorphologie-2011-4-page-407.htm

Outline

Introduction
Geochemical methods: autoradiography and X-ray fluorescence
Digital autoradiography: imaging of natural radioactivity (Beta Imager)
Portable XRF analyser
Avaatech XRF Core Scanner
Micro-XRF analysis
Nuclear microprobe analysis
Results for speleothems, detrital rhythmites, ice, and prehistoric paintings
Speleothems (France)
Pierre Saint-Martin Cave (Pyrenees, France) — Beta Imager and Microprobe
The karst of Entre-deux-Mers (Gironde, SW France) – Beta Imager and micro-XRF
Micro-XRF of a stalagmite formed in an urban environment: example of an underground tunnel of Lyon
Detrital rhythmites (France, China)
The karst of La Rochefoucauld (Charente, SW France) — Micro-XRF
The monsoon rhythmites of Dadong Cave (China)
Measurements on ice and prehistoric paintings in caves
Geochemical analysis of underground snow and ice: example of Scarasson Cave (Marguareis, Italy) – Micro-XRF
Example of a Pacific prehistoric cave (Patagonia, Chile) – Portable X-ray unit
Discussion
Importance of the site effect (tab. 1 and fig. 18)
Characterisation of palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions
Characterisation of anthropogenic signals
Identification of radioactive levels and implication for radiometric dating
Conclusions

First lines

Introduction

Geochemical analysis is usually used for marine and continental sediments (Böning et al., 2007; Kido et al., 2006; Koshikawa et al., 2003) but has not been very developed for subterranean deposits (speleothems and detritic fillings) even though karst deposits are now recognised as good indicators of past and present environments all over the world (Renault, 1990; Maire et al., 1994; Genty, 2002; Fairchild et al., 2006; White, 2007; Vanara and Douat, 2010). This paper aims to show that geochemical analysis and imaging are an original and significant approach to: (i) characterise the nature of speleothems and detrital cave deposits (natural or anthropic contaminations, diagenesis, etc.); (ii) reveal the hydro-sedimentary dynamics; (iii) characterise palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental variations; and (iv) specify the geomorphological evolution. This paper is part of “Climanthrope” ANR programme managed by Richard Maire. The objective of this programme is to characterise ...

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References

Bibliographical reference

Grégory Dandurand, Richard Maire, Richard Ortega, Guillaume Devès, Benjamin Lans, Laurent Morel, Anne-Sophie Perroux, Nathalie Vanara, Laurent Bruxelles, Stéphane Jaillet, Isabelle Billy, Philippe Martinez, Bassam Ghaleb and François Valla, « X-ray fluorescence microchemical analysis and autoradiography applied to cave deposits: speleothems, detrital rhythmites, ice and prehistoric paintings », Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement, 4/2011 | 2011, 407-426.

Electronic reference

Grégory Dandurand, Richard Maire, Richard Ortega, Guillaume Devès, Benjamin Lans, Laurent Morel, Anne-Sophie Perroux, Nathalie Vanara, Laurent Bruxelles, Stéphane Jaillet, Isabelle Billy, Philippe Martinez, Bassam Ghaleb and François Valla, « X-ray fluorescence microchemical analysis and autoradiography applied to cave deposits: speleothems, detrital rhythmites, ice and prehistoric paintings », Géomorphologie : relief, processus, environnement [Online], 4/2011 | 2011, Online since 20 December 2013, connection on 23 October 2014. URL : http://geomorphologie.revues.org/9623 ; DOI : 10.4000/geomorphologie.9623

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About the authors

Grégory Dandurand

Laboratoire ADES - UMR 5185, CNRS-Université Bordeaux 3 - ANR Climanthrope - Maison des Suds - 12, Esplanade des Antilles - 33607 Pessac Cedex - France (gregory.dandurand@gmail.com)

Richard Maire

Laboratoire ADES - UMR 5185, CNRS-Université Bordeaux 3 - ANR Climanthrope - Maison des Suds - 12, Esplanade des Antilles - 33607 Pessac Cedex - France (rmaire@ades.cnrs.fr)

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Richard Ortega

Centre d’Etude Nucléaire Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG) - UMR 5084 - CNRS-Université Bordeaux 1 - ANR Climanthrope - Chemin du Solarium - 33175 Gradignan - France (ortega@cenbg.in2p3.fr)

Guillaume Devès

Centre d’Etude Nucléaire Bordeaux Gradignan (CENBG) - UMR 5084 - CNRS-Université Bordeaux 1 - ANR Climanthrope - Chemin du Solarium - 33175 Gradignan - France (deves@cenbg.in2p3.fr)

Benjamin Lans

Laboratoire ADES - UMR 5185, CNRS-Université Bordeaux 3 - ANR Climanthrope - Maison des Suds - 12, Esplanade des Antilles - 33607 Pessac Cedex - France (b.lans@ades.cnrs.fr)

Laurent Morel

Laboratoire Ampère - UMR 5005 CNRS - ANR Climanthrope - Université Lyon 1 (laurent.morel@univ-lyon1)

Anne-Sophie Perroux

Laboratoire ADES - UMR 5185, CNRS-Université Bordeaux 3 - ANR Climanthrope - Maison des Suds - 12, Esplanade des Antilles - 33607 Pessac Cedex - France

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Nathalie Vanara

Laboratoire ADES - UMR 5185, CNRS-Université Bordeaux 3 - ANR Climanthrope - Maison des Suds - 12, Esplanade des Antilles - 33607 Pessac Cedex - France. Institut de Géographie - Université Paris 1 - France (nathalie.vanara@gmail.com)

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Laurent Bruxelles

INRAP et UMR 5608 CNRS TRACES/CRPPM - ANR Climanthrope - 168, Grand’Rue - 34130 Mauguio - France (laurent.bruxelles@inrap.fr)

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Stéphane Jaillet

Laboratoire EDYTEM - UMR 5204 CNRS - ANR Climanthrope - CISM, Université de Savoie - 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex - France (Stephane.Jaillet@univ-savoie.fr)

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Isabelle Billy

Laboratoire EPOC - UMR 5805 - Département de Géologie et Océanographie - Université Bordeaux 1 - Avenue des faculties - 33405 Talence Cedex - France (i.billy@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr)

Philippe Martinez

Laboratoire EPOC - UMR 5805 - Département de Géologie et Océanographie - Université Bordeaux 1 - Avenue des faculties - 33405 Talence Cedex - France (p.martinez@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr)

Bassam Ghaleb

Laboratoire GEOTOP - Université du Québec à Montréal - P.B. 8888 - Succ. centre-ville - Montréal, QC, H3C 3P8 - Canada (ghaleb.bassam@uqam.ca)

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François Valla

Comité scientifique du Club Alpin Français (francois.valla@sfr.fr)

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Copyright

© Groupe français de géomorphologie

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